12 Global language for care personnel


A set of 10 digits (0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9) which are effectively used worldwide is proposed for global communication in this website.

One syllable signals are proposed to denote meanings of digits for easy understanding.  'ta' signals health oriented clinical records which is related to kb2 (criteria and recorded indications for health care).  'ma' signals digital names of human body and its parts (kb1).  "ta"-"ma" linkage is the essential basis for appraisal and planning of health care as well as licensing of care personnel.  'mi' signals human body and parts of a care personnel, and 'me' signals everything that surrounds care personnel in the setting.  "mi"-"me" linkage is the key for appraisal and planning of optimum health care settings including hospitals/clinics, equipment and instruments.

0 based reasoning with digital order
The global health care system needs 0 based reasoning with digital order that is oriented to two goals: 1) health for one and all, 2) optimum use of human bodies and earth resources. Almost everyone knows how to calculate and appraise conditions with 10 digits therefore well-ordered digital sets are a global basis for learning with terms in health care records and procedure manuals.

A health oriented index for all recorded interventions provides a constant orientation toward +0 (health). Pd conditions are the 0 conditions for use of human bodies and associated earth resources. Pd orients us to 0 (zero) in terms of the least waste of 1) body effort, and 2) earth resources to achieve desired outcomes. The final goal is 0 (absence of need for health care). Need for intervention is - (minus or unwanted). Interventions are indexed from -0 to -9, where -0 denotes collecting information on body status and -9 denotes a removable replacement for a body part.

Health oriented index and 5 digit procedure codes (ta)

Signals for digital sets
Digital sets can’t be identified with digits. Therefore simple sound (= one syllable) is prefixed to a digit for easy and clear distinction.
Two consonants are chosen to differentiate two categories;
1)  ‘m’ for space-related specifications (ie. names or references of entities or parts which occupy space),
2)  ‘t’ for energy-based factors.
These consonants are chosen because they are; 1) the least variable consonants among languages, and 2) easy to pronounce.

Five cardinal vowels are commonly recognized in many mother tongues; “a”, “e”, “i”, “u”, “o”. (Note: These are listed in the order of the height of the body of the tongue and its antero-posterior position in the mouth, when making the sound.)
Digital terms are signaled by syllables and/or the letters x,y,z and t. The syllables differentiate the meaning of digital terms and facilitate vocal or written communication in digital terms.

Thus the following 8 signals have been proposed and are used in various settings;
‘ma’ – gross and micro anatomy
‘me’ - setting components including instruments
‘mi’ – skill anatomy –ie. body sections, positions, surface lines and points, etc.
‘mu’ – planes, lines and points of ‘me’ items
‘mo’ – procedure anatomy – ie. tissues and parts of body parts
‘ta’ - clinical records based on the health oriented index ( See below)
‘te’ - steps of procedure including start, en-route and stop

Global sounds for global communication  
Both prints (for eyes) and sound (for conversation) are needed for global communication. Global sounds for digits proposed here are easy to learn and easy to pronounce for everyone particularly for non-English speaking people.

Global sounds of digits
The sound of each digit is a combination of one consonant and one vowel. The consonant for digits 0, 1, 2, 3 and 4 is ‘l’ as in lap, and “p” as in part for digits 5, 6, 7, 8 and 9. Five cardinal vowels (ie. a, e, i, o, u) which are used in most mother tongues world wide are assigned in the order of the place of the tongue tip in the mouth, moving in a circle that begins and ends with “a”, that is sleeping (relaxed) tongue or zero position.

 Digits    0,  1,  2,  3,  4,   5,    6,   7,  8,  9

 Sounds  la,  le,  li,  lu,  lo,  pa,  pe,  pi,  pu,  po

  Global sounds of digits

Global Anatomy for Systematic Health Care
Many excellent anatomy books exist, so that we need a good reason to offer an alternative approach. We feel that the subject of anatomy should be more closely and easily linked to associated knowledge including physiology, pathology, clinical records and skill.  This linkage begins with the way we learn anatomy. The terms used for the human body and its parts are now a global concern with the advent of computer networks. Our assumption is 1) that learning is based on computer network programs, and that 2) computer networks are being rapidly adopted in learning institutes and care facilities linked with Internet/Intranet. Our approach may be termed “anatomy  based linkage” of all knowledge.

 Problem statement
Anatomy terms in various regional languages such as Chinese, Latin or English are a barrier to global knowledge. People dealing with serious health problems now want direct access to global knowledge, which links directly with local and personal information.  Many are favoring Latin-based or English terms or codes derived from these terms as the global standard for anatomy. English is widely used as a second language especially in commerce, introductions of subjects and orientation toward a common interest. It is convenient for those purposes. However we need global terms that provide better linkage for both learning and use.  For medical students, anatomy is the first entry to the health care field. Though the health care field is considered to be a science, traditional Latin-based terms used in anatomy are not scientific.  They do not help medical students to acquire 3D perception, nor deductive line of reasoning for linking anatomy to other associated subjects required in the health care field.

What is global anatomy?
The existing terminologies based in regional languages cannot be eliminated, but it is time to offer an alternative as a core for global standard and communication. Global anatomy is based on 1) computer networks and 2) numeric order. It maximizes use of imagery –photos, graphics, xyz coordinates and measurements. Global terms of anatomy removes barriers to communication, and we can learn anatomy and use its knowledge with no dependence on specialized terms.  Yet it will be easily linked to (but not from) regional terminologies including Mandarin, Latin, English, Arabic, Japanese or their associated codes -ex. ICD, SNOMED etc.

Who receives benefits from global anatomy? 
1. Potential patients and patients.  Global anatomy provides lay people easier linkage between local/personal information to global knowledge.

 2. Students and care providers. Global anatomy provides more value especially in this age of computer networks for;

 -direct linkage of global knowledge with local information and use,

 -related to body functions, body disorders, health oriented records, clinical skill and research,

 - the easiest way to learn.

Background of development of the proposed global anatomy

Global anatomy terms (a list of the first 3 digits)                                

Global anatomy terms (examples)

Procedure anatomy (mo)
 “mo” is one of eight syllables that signals numeric fields of information. The “mo”-signalled numeric set denotes subparts, planes, lines, and points of anatomic parts signaled by “ma.
  The “mo” numeric set provides constant and precise terminology for information, which is indicated for learning of skills, data collection and analysis for;
 1) specifying point-to-point relations between an operator (mi-coded) or an instrument (me & mu-coded) and a task object (ma-coded) for optimal control.
 2) locating a plane, line, or point to be perceived as reference for a given procedure.
 3) three dimensional measurement of a task object in order to relate specs of procedure, ie. its process to the value of the result of procedure or its product.

  The indication for the “mo” numeric set is based on the high degree of accuracy required for care procedures.

  The “mo” numeric set consist of 10 two-digit numbers. It is rare, however, that all 10 pairs are needed to locate or name a point.  In the setting & procedure recording form, the first digit 0 - 9 is printed on the top, under which the second digit is entered.

Procedure anatomy (mo): Graphics


Categories denoted by the 1st digit

mo0 – cross-section layers of the dento-aveolar tissue
      1 – mouth subparts
      2 – signs of defects or procedure
      3 – surface
      4 – reference plane or surface aspect in sequence of Z
      5 – reference plane or surface aspect as observed on XY
      6 – line
      7 – line segment
      8 – point
      9 – line segment or point in sequence
   As seen above, categories of percepts established by the first digit are arranged from the general to the specific in the order of 0, 1, ….9.  This reflects the order of inquiry or investigation of an object starting from layers and surface topography to one specific point.  The meaning of the higher mo number is dependent upon the scope set by the lower mo number.  For instance, “ma11mo81” denotes “the extreme occlusal point of ma11 (right upper central incisor)”, while “ma11mo4681” denotes “the extreme occlusal point of mo46 ‘infra-gingival tooth surface) of ma11”.

Percepts listed by the second digit

 The second digit of “mo” number lists percepts on a given category as follows;

mo0 – Cross-section layers of the dento-alveolar tissue
   For convenience of use, mo0 matches the 5th digit of ma6200
    01 – mucosa
    02 – gingival
    03 – enamel
    04 – dentin & cementum
    05 – pulp
    06 – ligament eg. periodontal
    07 – cortical (hard) bone eg. lamina dura
    08 – medullary (soft) bone
    09 – accretion/ foreign body/ lesion 

mo1 – Mouth subparts
   mo1 classifies surface topography of mouth subparts.  Deviation from the normal contour line of a reference surface is classified into rise and depression, each of which is sub-classified into pointed, lined, and planed forms; 
   11 – rise from a reference plane – pointed (ie pointed tip)
   12 – rise from a reference plane – line (ie tip is a line)
   13 – rise from a reference plane – plane (ie tip is a plane)
   14 – depression from a reference plane – pointed (ie pointed bottom)
   15 – depression from a reference plane – line (ie bottom is a line)
   16 – depression from a reference plane – plane (ie bottom is a plane)
   17 – surface in contact
   For instance, mo1131 denotes a cusp of a tooth, while mo1431 denotes an occlusal groove.  (cf. mo31) mo1735 denotes a mesial proximal contact (mo35). 

mo2 – Signs of defects or procedure
   The following includes both subparts of man-made objects and subparts of what is produced by natural process eg. bacteria.
    21 – margin established by subtractive procedure  eg. cavo-surface angle
    22 – interface exposed by subtractive procedure eg. enamel-dentin junction
    23 – aspect established by subtractive procedure  eg. axial pulpal wall
    24 – form established by supplementary sub.     eg. provision for retention
    25 – margin established by additive procedure   eg. restoration margin
    26 – interface established by additive procedure   eg. restored occlusal contact
    27 – aspect established by additive procedure
    28 – form established by supplementary add.     eg. lining form
    29 – surface condition & color 

mo3 – Surface
    Surfaces of the task object or the subject of procedure are identified by direction numbers in sequence of Z, Y, and X axes of a tooth.
   31 – occlusal surface   (Z axis)
   32 – gingival surface    (Z axis)
   33 – vestibular surface  (Y axis)
   34 – lingual surface     (Y axis)
   35 – mesial surface     (X axis)
   36 – distal surface      (X axis)

mo4 – Reference plane or surface
     The surface aspects of alveolus, gingival, or crown are identified by change of angle against Z axis, in sequence of Z from mo41 at the alveolar border to the surface aspect closest to the occlusal surface mo49.
   40 – reference YZ plane
   41 – alveolus – first aspect from border with marker 45 degrees from Z
   42 – alveolus – second aspect from border with marker 45 degrees from Z
   43 – alveolus – additional aspect/s up to mo44
   44 – gingival – between base and crest
   45 – gingival – between crest and margin
   46 – tooth – infra-gingival surface
   47 – tooth – between gingival margin and contour crest
   48 – tooth – between contour crest and occlusal contour crest
   49 – tooth – between occlusal contour crest and occlusal margin

mo5 – Reference plane or surface aspect as observed on XY
    Aspects in a surface or surface aspect specified in mo4 are identified by direction numbers based on change of angle on XY plane.
   50 – reference XY plane
   51 – occlusal aspect
   52 – gingival aspect
   53 – vestibular aspect
   54 – lingual aspect
   55 – mesial aspect
   56 – distal aspect

mo6 – Line
  Lines on a surface or surface aspect specified in mo3, mo4, and/or 5 are indentified by direction numbers. Lines are perceived as either a border between two surfaces or surface aspects, or an extremal line on a surface or surface aspect in a given direction;
  60 – outline
  61 – occlusal iine         - Z -
  62 – gingival line         - Z -
  63 – vestibular line     - Y -
  64 – lingual line          - Y -
  65 – mesial line           - X -
  66 – distal line             - X -

mo7 – Line segment
  A segment of a line or segment of two-dimensional line pattern is identified by direction number. mo7 is convenient as an indicator of tooth positioning.  An example of segment of two-dimensional line pattern would be a segment of mo2531 ie. the restoration margin on the occlusal surface.
  70 – reference line segment for a given procedure or line between 2 points.
  71 – occlusal segment of a given line     - Z -
  72 – gingival segment of a given line     - Z -
  73 – gingival segment of a given line     - Y -
  74 – lingual segment of a given line       - Y -
  75 – mesial segment of a given line        - X -
  76 – distal segment of a given line          - X -

mo8 – Point
  Points are identified by direction numbers. The point is perceived as an intersection of two lines or as an extremal point in a given direction.
  80 – reference point or intersection between 2 lines or a line with a plane
  81 – occlusal point         - Z -
  82 – gingival point         - Z -
  83 – vestibular point     - Y -
  84 – lingual point          - Y -
  85 – mesial point           - X -
  86 – distal point             - X -

mo9 –Line segment or point in sequence
  90 – all segments or points specified in mo0 – mo8
  91 – the first segment or point counting from mesial to distal
  92 – the second segment or point counting from mesial to distal
  93 – the third segment or point counting from mesial to distal